Attention-Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder (ADHD/ADD)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a confusing nomenclature. In the most recent version of the diagnostic system used in Psychiatry attention-deficit disorder (ADD) was combined with ADHD. ADD is now referred to as ADHD-Inattentive Type. Nonetheless, the pathophysiology of ADHD/ADD remains unchanged. ADHD is characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and impaired concentration. This is largely due to impaired function of the prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum. Studies have shown deficiencies of dopamine is central to the pathophysiology of ADHD. Treatment is largely limited to stimulant medications, which increase the release and impedes the reuptake of dopamine. However, this is a temporary solution with significant side effects and inadequate duration of action. Patients and the parents often express discontent with the daily regimen of stimulant medications. Roughly 6.1 million American have ADHD/ADD.
A more effective treatment requires an understanding of the cellular mechanisms of ADHD. A recent study examined dopaminergic neurons derived from children with and without ADHD. Neurons from children with ADHD exhibited impaired neurite outgrowth and branching, decreased mitochondrial mass in neurites, and abnormal intracellular ATP levels compared to neurons derived from children without ADHD. Supplementation with BDNF, however, significantly improved neurite development and mitochondrial function in ADHD-derived neurons. These results suggest that ADHD may result, in part, from insufficient production of BDNF. In addition, patients with ADHD show impaired cellular and mitochondrial respiration. Measures of respiration, ATPase 6/8 transcripts levels, mitochondrial complex V activity were decreased. Measures of oxidative stress were elevated in cells from ADHD patients. Some of these mitochondrial protein abnormalities have been shown to have a genetic link.
Thus, stimulating BDNF production and neuroplasticity with multi-Watt infrared light therapy would be expected to improve frontal lobe function in those affected by ADHD. This is exactly what we have found. Using specialized NuBrain protocols, we have seen a dramatic improvement in ADHD symptoms in our patients.
Imagine…a medication-free method to substantially and permanently change ADHD.